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Basic concept of Shiology
As a discipline of the 21st century, shiology is an entirely new knowledge system and the general term for all human shiance cognition. Shiology with shiance includes eat and food (Shiance=eat+food) as its research objects, to build a whole system of shiance knowledge and a theoretical system, to provide the global public goods for completly solving human shiance issues. There has never been a discipline that could cover all human cognition of shiance. Without being confined by the modern disciplinary system, shiology, for the first time, summarizes food acquisition, eaters` health, and shiance order into one holistic system, thus ending human`s segmented cognition of shiance and facilitating a revolution in the inefficient management of shiance. Shiology, from a higher perspective, observes the objective reality between human beings and food, between human beings and food maternity systems, and between food and the world order, and finds the rules behind it. It is a golden key to solve shiance issues.
Today, people are still quite unfamiliar with “shiology”, and have many misconceptions about its logical structure, research scope, and existence value. I am often asked two questions: “Is shiology bromatology or food culturology?” and “what is the relationship between shiology, agronomy, and medical science?” My answer is that shiology is a broader body of knowledge. For example, agronomy and food science are just two different aspects of food acquisition; nutriology and dietary therapy in medical science cover two aspects of eaters` health; and shiance culturology and shiance economics deal with two aspects of shiance order, etc. All of them illustrate certain aspects but not all human shiance cognition. Shiology covers all shiance cognition including the above-mentioned aspects, which not only clarifies their intrinsic relationship but also identifies their own essential characteristics and fills in many gaps. It can also be understood in this way: shiology is an expansion of agronomy from the perspective of “shiance” which is a larger system. Shiology is a general summary of all human shiance cognition, whose overall value is greater than the sum of parts.
Before giving an accurate definition of “shiology” (食学, Shi Xue), it is necessary to first analyze two Chinese characters—“eat”(食, Shi) and “-ology”(学, Xue) —from the perspective of source and Chinese meaning so as to better understand the concept of shiology and to have discussions from the four dimensions of relationship, function, essence, and occurrence.
Chinese Meaning of “Eat”
The Chinese character “食” (eat) is both a noun and a verb. In Origin of Chinese Characters, “any substance that contains six grains is food (食)”; in History of Han Dynasty—Biography of Li Yiji, “the top priority of the public is food (食)”. “食” in this context refers to human food, while the verb “食” has the same meaning as the English word “eat”. Given the nature of gerund of “食” in Chinese which expresses both “eat” and “food”, “食” covers a wide range of content, and thus is frequently used.
Chinese Meaning of “-ology”
The Chinese character “学” (-ology) is also both a noun and a verb. Its verb means to study, learn, and acquire knowledge, as explained in the Ancient Chinese Language (Guang Ya): “学 means know” and the Interpretation of The Ancient Book (Shang Shu Da Zhuan): “Learn.” Its noun refers to knowledge and discipline, as illustrated in the Ancient Chinese Language—Shishi: “学 means
discipline” and the Book of Later Han—Biography of Heroines: “Accumulating knowledge.”
【Meaning of “shiology”】
Since both “shi” and “-ology” can be used as a noun and verb in Chinese, there are four meanings of the word “shiology”. (1) verb “shi” + noun “-ology”, meaning the study and discipline of eating; (2) noun “shi” + noun “-ology”, meaning the study and discipline of food; (3) verb “shi” + verb “-ology”, meaning eat to learn which is of no practical meaning; and (4) noun “shi” + verb “-ology”, meaning food learns which is of no practical meaning. The third and fourth meaning of shiology will not be considered and the first and second meaning will be discussed in this book. The second one, the study and discipline of food has a relatively narrow range, covering only study on food, which cannot be used to refer to the shiance system. The first one, the study and discipline of eating by adopting the verbal meaning of “shi” can be extended to cover a lager range. I, therefore, choose the first meaning for the purpose of covering all behaviors related to food in addition to table manners (see Table 1).
Creation of “shiology”
In the book Introduction to shiology, I coined an English word shiology. Some people asked me why I created a completely new word instead of using terms that already exist like Food Science or Eat-Science. First of all, since shiology is not a study of food, it is not appropriate to use the term Food Science. Second, as shiology not only includes the study on table manners, but also covers all disciplines related to food production, eaters` health, and shiance order, using the name Eating-Science will cause ambiguity. It is, therefore, necessary to create a special word to convey the concept of shiology more accurately.
Definition of shiology
From the above discussions, it can be found that shiology is not a study of food, or eating, or eating culture. In order to know what shiology is, it is necessary to develop a definition of “shiology” as a concept of discipline to specify its connotation and extension. That is to say, I would like to use concise and accurate words to identify the objects of the study of “shiology” as a discipline. To this end, I would define “shiology” as following and discuss it from four dimensions. Shiology is a discipline that studies shiance and its laws, especially the occurrence, development and evolutionary laws of human shiance, and the relationship and laws between people and food, aiming to solve shiance issues of individuals and human beings.
From the perspective of relationship. Shiology is a discipline that studies the relationship between people and food, in another word, a discipline that studies the relationship between man and nature in the process of human diet. Shiology is a discipline that studies the relationship and laws between people and food, and a science that studies the relationship and laws between people and ecology from the perspective of shiance.
From the perspective of function. Shiology is a discipline that studies and solves shiance problems. It is developed due to the existence of various shiance issues and difficulties, and the only reason for the existence of shiology is to better tackle these problems.
From the perspective of essence. Shiology is a discipline that studies human shiance cognition and its laws as well as the energy conversion between man and nature. It is a system of strict logic that consists of a series of concepts and judgments on human shiance cognition. Human survival relies on energy support. Food is the medium for energy conversion between humans and the natural world. Shiance is the way to obtain energy from food.
From the perspective of occurrence. Shiology is a discipline that studies the occurrence, development and evolutionary laws of human shiance, which not only explains the panoramic view of human shiance system, but also reveals the microscopic mystery of food. It is therefore a discipline that studies the relationship between shiance and food with human survival and health at the center. The purpose of discussing the definition of shiology from four perspectives is to enable us to more accurately understand and grasp its concept.
The above elaborations have different focuses. Among them, the elaboration that “shiology is a discipline that studies the relationship and laws between people and food” succinctly and accurately reveals the essential connotation of the “shiology” research object, which is in line with the current conventions of discipline definition. The elaboration that “shiology is a discipline that studies the occurrence, development and evolutionary laws of human shiance” clarifies the essential characteristics and nature of this discipline, and identifies the direction, content and tasks of research into it.
The triangular structure of shiology, referred to as the shiology triangle, consists of three aspects: food production, eaters` health, and the shiance order. It is the basis for us to understand and develop the shiology system.
Figure 2 Shiology Triangle
In figure 2, eaters` health refers to the process and efficiency from orally taking food to excreting waste matter from the body. Although this journey inside the human body is less than 20 meters, there are still great unknown mysteries to be revealed. Studying this area will help humans improve health and increase longevity. Food acquisition refers to all industries related to food acquisition including agriculture, food industry, catering industry, etc. This area involves a number of industries ranging from food source to dining table, accounting for over 40% of the global GDP. Studying this area helps us ensure the quality and quantity of human food. The shiance order mainly refers to the coordination of two major contradictions: first, coordinating the contradiction and conflict between food acquisition and eaters` health; second, coordinating the contradiction and conflict in between humanity and ecology. The shiance order involves a number of aspects including administration, law, education, efficiency, etc. Studying this area will help us develop shiance rules for a sustainable human society and achieve harmony between humans and ecology, between people and food, and between food acquisition and eaters` health. It can be found from Figure 1 that eaters` health, being an essential part, is supported and influenced by food acquisition and the shiance order. The purpose of food production is eaters` health. An essential part is food quality and quantity. The shiance order is a way of supporting eaters` health and aims to guide people to live a long and healthy life. The primary goal of regulating and controlling food production is to guarantee that each generation is able to enjoy long and healthy life by achieving harmonious relationships between people and food, between people and society, and between humanity and ecology. Prior to the introduction of shiology triangle, researches on food acquisition, eaters` health and shiance order were extremely uneven with more emphasis on food acquisition and less on eaters` health and shiance order, which is the root cause of many shiance issues faced by humanity today. While conducting in-depth and comprehensive research in the field of eaters` health is the best choice to increase longevity of individuals, carrying out in-depth and comprehensive research on the shiance order is a magic weapon to solve major problems between people and between population and ecology. Previously, these three areas were believed to be of no relationship with each other. However, once they are put together in this triangular structure, it can be identified that each of them occupies a place in this structure and forms a certain relationship with each other. However, there are still many gaps to be closed.
【The shiology 3-13-36 system】
The basic system of shiology includes three level-two subjects, 13 level-three subjects, and 36 level-four subjects, covering all basic aspects of shiology discipline (see Figure 3). Three level-two subjects include eaters` health science, food acquisition science, and shiance order science. Thirty-six level-three subjects include:
9 disciplines under the Eaters` Health Science covers three third-level subjects, namely, the Eaters’ Demands Science, the Food Composition Science and the Eatology. Where Eaters` Health Science includes Eaters` Physical Conditions Science and Easters` Physiological Structure Science. The Food Elements Science includes two subjects, namely, the Food Natures Science and the Food Components Science. Eatology, which are the Eating Methodology Science, the Dining Aesthetics Science, the Dinging Diseases Science, the Eating Therapeutics with Food of Imbalanced Nature Science and the Eating Therapeutics with Synthetic Food Science.
19 disciplines under the Food Acquisition Science consists of seven third-level subjects: Food Ecology Science, Food Direct Acquisition Science, Food Domestication Science, Man-made Food Science, Food Processing Science, Food Circulation Science and Shiance tools Science. Where Food Ecology Science includes Food Ecological Conservation Science and Food Ecological Restoration Science；Food Direct Acquisition Science includes Food picking Science, Food Hunting Science, Food Fishing Science and Food Collecting science；Food Domestication Science includes Food Planting Science, Food Farming Science and Food Culturing Science；Man-made Food Science includes Food conditioning synthesis Science and Body-Tonifying Synthetic Food Science；Food Processing Science includes Food Fragmentation Science, Food Cooking and Food Fermentation Science；Food Circulation Science includes Food Storage Science, Food Transportation Science and Food Packaging Science；Shiance Tools Science includes Shiance Manual Tools Science and Shiance Power Tools Science.
8 disciplines under the Shiance Order Science covers three third-level subjects, namely, Shiance Governance Science, Shiance Education Science and Shiance History Science. Where Shiance Governance Science includes Shiance Economic Science, Shiance Law Science, Shiance Administration Science and Shiance Digital Control Science；Shiance Education and Cultivation Science includes Shiance Education Science and Shiance Customs Science；Shiance History Science includes Wild Food History Science and Domesticated Food History Science.
Figure 3 Basic system of shiology
【The subject coding of Shiology】
Shiology is a newly constructed system, the content is huge and complex, among which there are more than one hundred fifth-level subjects. For the convenience of retrieval and searching and more in-depth research, the author has drawn up a shiology subject coding system, which corresponds to the coding system of shiance issues. The shiology coding consists of two English letters and six digits. The two letters are SS, abbreviation of Shiology Subject. The six digits represent the subject and subject levels, the first digit is the first-level subject, which is shiology. The second number is the second level of shiology; The third number is the third-level of shiology; The fourth number is the fourth-level subject; The fifth and sixth digits are fifth-level subject codes. For example, the first-level subject code is: shiology [SS100000]; the second-level shology subject codes are : Eaters’ Health Science[SS110000], Food Acquisition Science [SS120000], shiance Order Science [SS130000]; Another example is the subject codes of third-level shiology subjects: Eaters’ Demands Science[SS111000], Food Composition Science[SS112000], Eatology [SS113000], Food Ecology Science [SS121000], Food Direct Acquisition Science [SS122000], Food Domestication Science [SS123000], Artificial Food Science [SS124000], Food Processing Science [SS125000], Food Circulation Science [SS126000], Shiance Tools Science[SS127000], Shiance Governance Science [SS131000], Food Education Science [SS132000], Food History Science [SS133000].
Shiance refers to eating-related matters within the framework of Etology. In specific, it refers to all matters related to human beings` eating-related behaviors and their outcomes. It is the source and also an important part of human civilization. Except for multiplying and breeding, the life of ancient human beings was almost all about shiance. Multiplying and breeding also contained a lot of eating-related contents like the feeding of babies. However, when it came to shiance, people tended to narrow the scope and considered that only what was associated with the dining table belonged to shiance. Such a definition has been greatly expanded through shiology, which, by integrating food production, eaters` health and the shiance order of human beings, defines shiance as all matters related to human beings` eating-related behaviors and their outcomes. This not only broadens the definition. Its significance lies in the fact that the integration of food production, eaters` health and shiance order into shiance is more conducive to the understanding and grasp of human`s shiances.
Shiance cognition refers to human cognition of shiance. shiance is of objective existence, while shiance cognition is of subjective cognition. It is where human wisdom began. Shiance cognition is handed down in two ways: by word of mouth and in the form of records. There are many kinds of recording media for shiance cognition, from ancient rock paintings of foods and the acquisition of food, to texts in later stages, and then to today`s digital multimedia. Like shiance, shiance cognition also covers three areas: food acquisition, eaters` health, and shiance order. For a long time, human`s shiance cognition has existed in profuse and fragmented states, and the task of shiology is to integrate them and discover the misunderstandings and gaps therein.
Shiance is a whole and shiance issue is a whole. However, human's cognition of shiance and shiance issues has not yet formed a whole knowledge system. The human cognition of shiance can be analyzed from the perspective of time and space. From the perspective of time, human cognition of shiance has never stopped. Its prominent feature is quantification. Shiance cognition is an important force to promote the progress of human civilization. From the perspective of space, people in different regions cannot survive without shiance cognition, which is characterized by fragmentation. shiance cognition is an important component of different ethnic cultures.
Since the industrial society, people have divided the contents of shiance cognition into different disciplines, and successively established the knowledge system of agriculture, foodstuff science and nutrition in the modern scientific system, which greatly promoted the progress of shiance cognition in this field and revealed more objective laws of shiance, and has contributed greatly in solving the shiance issues of human beings, particularly the sharp increase in food demands caused by the rapid increase of population in modern times
However, there are some problems in the food knowledge system of these branches. First, they mainly focus on food production and are relatively weak in food utilization. Second, agronomy, foodstuff science and nutrition belong to different upper science, and there are too many gaps between each other. In a word, the cognition of shiance in modern scientific system is in a state of fragmentation, and does not fully cover the problems of human shiance. In modern society, the separation of the cognition of food production and food utilization brings more and more serious social problems and attracts more and more attention.
The food mentioned in shiology system refers specifically to any human food that is taken orally for the purpose of maintaining people`s life and health. Food is classified into five categories: fungi, plants, animals, minerals (water, salt, etc.), and synthetic food. The first four categories are natural food, including “herbs” as in traditional Chinese medicine. The fifth category is non-natural food, which is the extension of the food definition. Food additives and oral medicines also fall under the category of synthetic food, as they are taken orally for the purpose of maintaining people`s life and health. In another word, they meet the two conditions required to be regarded as food. However, synthetic food, as an outsider and latecomer of the food chain, is not a kind of traditional food enjoyed by human beings. Although they are strikingly different from natural food and many people have difficulty accepting this expanded concept of food, the fact that they enter and affect the human body through oral intake is unquestionable.
【Food Maternity System】
The food maternity system (FMS) refers to the system of nurturing food, defined from the perspective of the source of human food, expressing the relationship between food nurturing and mankind. All human beings share one food maternity system which is the root of the community with shared future for mankind. The food maternity system consists of the inorganic system and the organic system. The inorganic system includes water, salt, air, temperature, etc. while the organic system includes microorganisms, plants, animals, and the like. The magnificent food maternity system has nurtured 107.6 billion people over the past 5.5 million years, and feeds 7.63 billion people today. Disrupted by human activities, expansion of cities, severe pollutions of air, water, and soil as well as the intensification of the greenhouse effect, our food maternity system is becoming increasingly vulnerable. The normal operation of the food maternity system is the guarantee for the sustained supply of human food and the basis for the continuation of human populations. The overall or partial imbalance of the food maternity system will directly threaten human survival. Any behavior and action that pollute the inorganic system and interfere with the organic system, regardless of shiance or non-shiance, will cut people off the source of food and bring ruins upon human beings.
Eating-related behavior (shiance behavior) includes food production behavior, eaters` health behavior, and food order behavior (as shown in Figure 1-2). The reason why this concept is developed is that it is an important object of shiology research and covers “all behaviors related to human eating”. I coined the English word shiance instead of Eat-action in that the latter only reflects table manners, not all eating-related behaviors. shiance not only refers to table manners, but includes all eating-related behaviors of human beings, both direct and indirect. Behaviors directly related to eating involve searching food, picking, hunting, fishing, culturing, cultivating, planting, grazing, transportation and storage of food, controlling and selling food, purchasing and cooking food, orally taking and chewing food, while behaviors indirectly related to eating involve eating-related economics, administration, law, and education. The establishment of this concept is conducive to our comprehensive understanding of this object.
The shiance system refers to the overall operating mechanism of human shiance. The shiance system is a main component of human society and a collection of all human behaviors with the purpose of satisfying people`s desire for food and eating. It is objective and constantly changing. From the perspective of people`s survival and continuation, this system is way much more significant than other human behavior systems. The shiance system, from small to large, from fragmental to complete, from disorder to order, has experienced six gradual transitions as follows. First, the individual shiance system, a micro-system, refers to the overall operating mechanism of an individual`s shiance that happens every day, each year and throughout his whole life. Second, the family shiance system refers to the overall operating mechanism of all family members` shiance. Third, the national shiance system refers to the overall operating mechanism of shiance happening within nations. Fourth, the country-based shiance system refers to the overall operating mechanism of the country-based shiance, which is a relatively closed system. Fifth, the regional shiance system refers to the overall operating mechanism of shiance happening within a certain region. One country opens its door to another usually for the reason of food and thus a regional shiance system within a larger area is developed. Sixth, the global shiance system refers to the overall operating mechanism of the shiance of all human beings. With the gradual increase in food exchanges between different countries and regions, especially since the 16th century, the discovery of the New World, colonization and liberalized trade has accelerated the evolution of the global shiance system.
Food-conversion (FC) refers to the whole process of converting food into body energy and composition as well as excreta. Since the concept of “digestion” already exists, why is this new concept created? While digestion which is based on the knowledge of modern medicine, from the perspective of the human body, focuses on the body`s digestion process, food-conversion which is based on the understanding of all fields, from the perspective of food, emphasizes the process where food is converted. The FC concept covers more aspects than the digestion concept. The purpose of establishing the FC concept is to better study the laws according to which food is converted and to improve eaters` health. Food-conversion mainly consists of four dimensions. First, body composition. Food is converted into the body`s own composition. Second, energy release. Food is converted into energy for the body to use. Third, information transmission. Food, as a medium between human and nature, transmits certain biological information which we know little about. Fourth, excreta. Metabolites are excreted from the body after food is absorbed and utilized by the body. For example, the “sugar” in food after metabolism and energy production will be excreted from the body in the form of CO2 and H2O, and nitrides, the metabolites of protein, will be excreted from the body in urine, etc. (see Figure 4).
Figure 4 Food-conversion dimensions
The food-conversion system (FCS) refers to the overall mechanism of the whole process where food is converted into body composition, energy to be released and waste to be excreted from the body, including digestion, absorption, utilization, excretion, release, etc. (as shown in Figure 5). It is both a working system of several organs engaging in food-conversion and an existing system of the entire body. Our research on food-conversion system aims to explore human life system from the perspective of food. The food-conversion system has a long history. Its formation can be dated back to the age of anthropoids about 25 million years ago. This system was formed much earlier than the human brain intelligence system. Due to people`s neglect of the importance of the food-conversion system, today our knowledge of the food-conversion system is far behind that of the brain intelligence system. The food-conversion system is the cornerstone of human survival, health and longevity. However, up until today, there are still many unknown aspects of the food-conversion system, such as abdominal brain cells, intestinal flora, and overall mechanisms. As it directly influences each individual`s health and longevity, it is therefore significant for humankind to further study and understand this system, and take the initiative to grasp and follow its internal laws. Each individual human being is a complete and natural food-conversion system, which means that currently there are 7.63 billion food-conversion systems on the earth and the number will grow to 10 billion if the world population rises to 10 billion. From a microscopic point of view, none of the 7.63 billion food-conversion systems are identical, and evident differences exist between individuals. However, such difference serves as a key to unlocking the secrets of a healthy life of each individual.
Figure 5 Food-conversion system
【Shiance Sphere Triangle】
Human shiance is an objective existence. In order to thoroughly understand it, the first thing to be tackled is to identify the foundation of its existence, the eating sphere. It is a world including all the things relate to eating. The eating sphere consists of three systems: food maternity system, food-conversion system and shiance system. While the food maternity system and the food-conversion system are operating mechanisms of nature, the shiance system is of the operating mechanism of the human society. A correct understanding of the relationship between these three systems is an important pillar of the establishment of shiology discipline system. From a historical point of view, the formation of the Phanerozoic Eon ecosystem happened about 540 million years ago, during which five massive species extinctions occurred. Today`s food maternity system was formed about 65 million years ago, the formation of the food-conversion system was 40 to 50 million years ago, and the human (ape-men) shiance system was formed about 5.5 million years ago. It can be found that the human shiance system was developed over 10 times later than the food maternity system and food-conversion system. This context is a premise of our study and understanding of these three systems and their relationship. From the perspective of composition, while the food maternity system and the food-conversion system are objective, shiance system is subjective. The food maternity system is a large “holistic system,” the food-conversion system is a “collective system” consisting of 7.63 billion small systems, and the shiance system is a “layered system” ranging from small to large.From the perspective of relationship, the essential relationship between the three systems is that shiance system takes food from the food maternity system and supplies to the food-conversion system which utilizes the food. Then food waste and human corpses return back to the food maternity system (as shown in Figure 6). The above-mentioned indicates that 7.63 billion food-conversion systems share one food maternity system through the shiance system. Although we are different in individual, family, regional, national interests as well as family, regional, national, and racial culture, we share common interests and culture in the context of food maternity system. It can be said that human beings share one “food maternity system”, which is the cornerstone of the “community with shared future for mankind” theory. The food maternity system, food-conversion system and shiance system form a shiance sphere triangle. While the food maternity system and the food-conversion system are of natural attributes, the shiance system bears social nature. These three are interrelated and inseparable.
Figure 6 Shiance Sphere Triangle
【Principle of shiology】
Principle of human body derived from food states that human body is transformed from food, which include bones, blood, organs, muscles, brain, skin, hair, and so on. This is a complex transformation process that requires genetic, oxygen, temperature, and other factors. It may be said that without food there is no body, and without food there is no life.
Principle of coupling between food and human body is that healthy coupling between human body and food. Everyone's body is different and in change all the time. Only by clearly recognizing their differences, according to the needs of their own body conditions at that time, choose the most suitable food and eating methods, can they achieve health through eating. If this principle is violated, people will become ill and their health will be threatened.
Principle of improper dietary causing illness states that eating matter is a source of human disease. Improper food and improper eating methods can cause disease and threaten the health of the body. Eating right can prevent disease.
Principle of dietary intervention in illness treatment is that eating is an important form of treating diseases. Using the digestive and absorption system to correct body imbalance is an ancient discovery and utilization, which can not only treat diseases caused by food, but also treat diseases by other causes.
Principle of gastronomic aesthetics with five-senses is that eating is the five senses of aesthetics, which is perceived through taste, smell, touch, sight and hearing. It is an aesthetic process based on smell, taste, and touch (oral), supplemented by sight and hearing. The aesthetic response to eating is binary, namely psychological response and physiological response, emphasizing the unity of delicious and healthy.
Principle of shiance breeding civilization is that shiance precedes civilization, and shiance breeds civilization. Shiance is the foundation of civilization, shiance sustains the continuation of civilization. Improper shiance behaviors will threaten the continuation of civilization.
Principle of shiance triangle among food maternal system, shiance behavioral system and food conversion system is that the scope of human shiance is developed among the food maternal system, shiance behavior system and food conversion system. The shiance behavior system takes food from the maternal food system for use by the food conversion system, which excretes and eventually degrades food from the body back into the maternal food system. The resulting triangle reflects the boundaries of human shiance, and the whole picture of shiance cannot be formed by the absence of any part.
Principle of shiance first is that Shiance has a long history and before other matters. Shiance is a matter of survival, so survival comes first, and life comes second. Only shiance comes first, the country is peaceful, and the people live a stable life. If other matters come first, there will be incoherence and confusion.
Principle of shiance behavior complying food maternal system and food conversion system is that human shiance behavior must follow the operating rules of the food conversion system in order to be healthy and long lived, and must follow the operating rules of the food maternal system in order to be sustainable. Human shiance behavior should not be capricious. Only by correcting improper behavior of human food in time can human beings survive better and develop sustainably.
Principle of shiance order as the foundation of the social order states that human social order originates from the distribution of food and the possession of food resources. Shiance order is survival order and is earlier than social order. Shiance order is the foundation of social order. Without shiance order, all the other orders will collapse in an instant, and so will the civilization.
【Tasks of shiology】
The scientific question of shiology is "how to construct the relationship between shiance and civilization?" It includes three aspects: the relationship between shiance and individual, between shiance and group, and between shiance and population. The basic task of shiology is to solve the shiance issues. Specifically, it is to solve the problem of insufficient life span of human beings, the problem of social conflict and the problem of ecological conflict of shiance, that is to prolong individual lifespan, optimize social order and maintain the continuation of population.
The first basic task of shiology is to extend the life span of individual human beings, that is to say, to extend the healthy life span of everyone, so that "shiology is the study for the public, is the study for the people." The relationship between eating and individual health has three aspects, namely, food quantity, food quality and eating methods. The first aspect is to ensure the quantity of food available. According to the statistics of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the latest forecast of the total global grain production in 2022 is 2.764 billion tons (FAO, 2022), which is 345.5 kg per capita based on the global population of 8 billion. However, 821 million people are still hungry due to serious problems such as the gap between the rich and poor, food waste, food diverted for other purposes, imbalance and inadequacy. The second aspect is to ensure the quality of food. The quality of food in modern food production is threatened by pollution and excessive chemical addition. Food faces these two threats at every stage of its production, processing and transportation. The third aspect is the correct eating methods. To eat healthily, it is not enough to rely only on the quantity and quality of food, but also need to have the correct methods to eat. Satiety is a matter of quantity of food, eating well is a matter of quality and type of food, and eating healthy is a matter of eating methods. Eating can both cause diseases and cure diseases. The core content of eating methods is to respect the differences of each individual, to meet your own unique gastrointestinal and physical needs, to pay attention to the three stages, namely before, during and after meal to achieve an overall management, shiology not only instructs humans to reach the average life span of mammals, but also to reach the maximum life span of mammals by correct eating methods.
The second basic task of shiology is to optimize the social order. Shiance order is the organization and continuity of human shiance, which is the basis of the whole order of human society. To build a harmonious and just world shiance order is the basis for the harmony of human society. The distribution of food resources is the origin of human social order. Food shortage and uneven possession of food resources are the main factors of human social conflicts. From the point of view of Chinese history, the peasant revolts of all dynasties were caused by shiance. With the development of human science and economy, transportation and trade, the formation of the world shiance order is accelerating. We should actively study and control this system, break out of the limitation of the world shiance order formed by the board of directors of several business groups, and establish a world shiance order that takes care of the interests of 8 billion people, so that the production and distribution of food can be more balanced, to reduce various conflicts caused by food resources. So that everyone can eat enough, eat well and live a healthy life and a harmonious shiance order will promote the progress of the overall order of human society.
The third basic task of shiology is to maintain the continuation of the population. A total of 107.6 billion people has lived on Earth for 5.5 million years, with the global population reaching 8 billion in November 2022. When the world population reaches tens of billions, it will be unmatched at any other time in history, and human demand for food will reach an unprecedented height. The sharp increase of food demand will hit the ceiling of maternal food productivity, and the food resource scarcity will shou up quickly, the conflict between human shiance and ecology will be increasingly intensified. When food resources are out of balance with human food demands, human culture and civilization will be under great threat. This is an important factor threatening the sustainable development of mankind. It is not coal, electricity, oil, natural gas and other resources that threaten the sustainable development of mankind as these resources are living resources, not surviving resources. Twelve out of 17 of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are related to shiance issues. It can be said that the sustainable development of mankind cannot be realized unless the shiance issues are effectively solved.
【Shiology clarifies the relationship between shiance and all other matters】
An important contribution of shiology is to clarify the relationship between shiance and other matters, In the current situation, we should stick to putting shiance first. If other matters come first, it will threaten the survival and sustainability of mankind. Civilization comes from food. Shiance has a long history, civilization is the later. Shiance should be put in the priority position, every other things should be followed. Food breeds civilization, food can also destroy civilization. Shiance is the source of the six elements of human civilization, which is a persistent objective rule that cannot be changed. After the rise of industrial civilization, the rapid developments of science and technology have satisfied the desires of human beings, resulting in increasing desires of other matters. Under the operating mechanism of commercial society, people often unconsciously make the decision of "other matters first", and putting shiance behind them. For example, the emergence of fast food is to compress the time of shiance for the sake of other matters, ignoring the needs of the food transformation system. Thus, the health of human body is threatened and harmed. The social conflicts, population explosion, environmental damage, inadequate life expectancy and other problems faced by human beings today are the root causes of the "other matters first" behavior, which will not only reduce the overall operating efficiency of the society, but also threaten individual health, group harmony and the sustainability of the population. In the relationship between shiance and other matters, shiology gives a clear answer to the priority of shiance, which is a great contribution of shiology.
【Shiology provides support for the sustainable development of mankind】
In 2015, the United Nations adopted 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for the period of 2015-2030. Among the 17 SDGs, 12 are closely related to shiance. Shiology is not only consistent with the SDGs of the United Nations in the fields involved, but also coincides with the governance methods proposed by the United Nations to " thoroughly manage the social, economic and environmental dimensions of sustainable development in an integrated manner ". The shiance issues are major obstacles threatening the sustainable development of mankind.
There is a basic idea in shiology: "If the shiance issues cannot be solved completely, the sustainable development of mankind cannot be realized". Shiology is concerned with the sustainability of both human populations and the maternal food system. shiology believes that no matter how advanced the development of science and technology, human beings cannot leave the beautiful home of the earth. A serious study of how humans can live in better harmony with the food system is the way to long-term stability. Shiology, which maintains two sustainable concepts, will help human beings to adjust their previous development ideas, reflect on some of their wrong behaviors, and contribute to the sustainable development of human beings and ecological environment.
【Shiology greatly improves the human shiance efficiency】
Shiance is the main behavior of human survival, and the 7,000 years of civilization is also a history of improving the shiance efficiency. But in the past, shiance efficiency was often limited to the field of food production. Shiology clearly points out that shiance efficiency is reflected in four aspects: food production, food utilization, shiance order and the whole society. Shiance efficiency can be divided into labor efficiency, area efficiency, growth efficiency and utilization efficiency. Among the four efficiencies, utilization efficiency is the core, food production efficiency serves the utilization efficiency, and the improvement of shiance efficiency can promote the overall social operation efficiency, and reduce the involution. Among them, the area efficiency and growth efficiency of the production efficiency field have a "ceiling", and now it is close to the limit. Labor efficiency can be greatly improved under the guidance of today's technology, especially digital technology. There is plenty of room to improve the utilization efficiency. The overall improvement of shiance efficiency is an important symbol of the progress of human civilization.
【Shiology can prolong the life span of each person】
The first of the three major tasks of shiology is to prolong individual life span, which is also an important symbol of human civilization. Satiety is a matter of quantity of food, and eating well is a matter of quality and variety of food. To improve one`s health by eating is related to eating methods. In order to achieve this goal, everyone is required to learn to feed themselves well. Eating not only determines survival, it can also cause and cure diseases.
Throughout the history of human eating matters, although eating methods have always been in a very important position, there has been a lack of a comprehensive scientific summary of eating methods, and there is no subject specializing on eating methods. There are numerous scientific works written by mankind, but so far, there has not been a comprehensive discussion and summary of eating methods of academic works. The shilogy has made up for this lack. A whole set of subjects related to eating has been set up in the system of shiology, including the cognition of food, human body, eating methods, eating aesthetics, eating disease and eating curing, etc. The principles of "eating brain as the king and brain as the minister"，" homology of food and medicine (oral medicine)" have been put forward. The shiology has put forward three stages of management, namely "three distinguishes before eating", "seven suggestions during the dining" and "two tests after eating". In response to the universality of human eating matters, the Dial Eating Guide is launched. The spread of these theories and popular guidance can make people master the scientific ways of eating and contribute to the prolongation of human life.
【Shiology puts forward the theory of "sustainable industry classification"】
In today's society, there are dozens of methods to classify industries, among which "three industrial classification methods" is widely used in the 21st century. This theory has played a great role in promoting the development of modernization, but the weakness of this theory is that it creates the problem of unsustainable human development.
From the perspective of human survival needs, the theory of "sustainable industry classification" put forward by shiology, classfy social industries into three categories: essential industry for survival, non-essential industry for survival and industry threatening survival. Industries essential for survival refer to industries necessary for human survival such as food, clothing, housing and medical care. Non-essential industries for survival refer to transportation, information, services, entertainment and other industries necessary for life but not essential for survival. Industries threatening survival refer to the drug industry, the arms industry and some industries formed because of the loss of science and technology, which pose a great danger to human survival. Shiology advocates vigorously developing industries essential for survival, controlling on the non-essential industries for survival, and restraining and eliminating industries threatening survival.
The core value of the "sustainable industry classification" theory is that it can support the sustainable development of human beings. It has very important theoretical and practical value, and provides an effective path to the ideal society of human beings.
【Shiology puts forward "Shiance Industry Civilization Era" theory】
The history of human development has gone through three stages: primitive civilization, agricultural civilization and industrial civilization. Human beings are developing and civilization is continuing. What kind of civilization will the next civilization be? The answer of shiology is that the next stage of human civilization is the “Age of Industrial Civilization”. Shiance civilization can also be called food industry civilization. Food industry civilization is the name expressed in the historical era. Throughout the history of human civilization, the shiance issues have been throughout, but have not been completely solved. The era of food industry civilization is a social stage in which the human shiance issues have been comprehensively and thoroughly solved. Food industry civilization is the whole civilization of human beings, the civilization of sustainable development of human beings, the civilization of longevity of human beings, the civilization of leisure time of human beings having plenty of leisure time, the civilization of limited desires of human beings with the idea of doing something and not doing something, and the earth civilization of human beings living in peace on earth.
Human beings have many dreams of an ideal society in the future, from the ideal society of "great harmony under the world" in Asia to the "utopia" in Europe and the "Utopian socialism" in modern times. The wise men at all times and at home and abroad have made many assumptions about the ideal society in the future, but they have not provided effective ways to realize it. Shiology outlines a clear and implementable road for the realization of human ideal society, which is to give priority to the thorough solving of the human shiance issues, and step into the stage of shiance civilization as a whole, which is the prerequisite for realizing any kind of ideal society for human beings.